sábado, 26 de enero de 2013

The Raven / El cuervo I

Edgar Allan Poe and The Raven, por Paul Green


The Raven

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak a weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
" 'Tis some visiter," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door -
Only this, and nothing more."

Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December,
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I wished the morrow; - vainly I had sought to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow - sorrow for the lost Lenore -
For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore -
Nameless here for evermore.

And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me - filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;
So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating
" 'Tis some visiter entreating entrance at my chamber door -
Some late visiter entreating entrance at my chamber door; -
This it is, and nothing more,"

Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
"Sir," said I, "or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;
But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,
And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,
That I scarce was sure I heard you" - here I opened wide the door; -
Darkness there, and nothing more.

Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before;
But the silence was unbroken, and the darkness gave no token,
And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, "Lenore!"
This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, "Lenore!"
Merely this and nothing more.

Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,
Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before.
"Surely," said I, "surely that is something at my window lattice;
Let me see then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore -
Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore; -
'Tis the wind and nothing more!"

Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter,
In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly days of yore.
Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he;
But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door -
Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door -
Perched, and sat, and nothing more.

Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore,
"Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou," I said, "art sure no craven.
Ghastly grim and ancient Raven wandering from the Nightly shore -
Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night's Plutonian shore!"
Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

Much I marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly,
Though its answer little meaning - little relevancy bore;
For we cannot help agreeing that no living human being
Ever yet was blessed with seeing bird above his chamber door -
Bird or beast above the sculptured bust above his chamber door,
With such name as "Nevermore."

But the Raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only,
That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour.
Nothing further then he uttered - not a feather then he fluttered -
Till I scarcely more than muttered "Other friends have flown before -
On the morrow he will leave me, as my Hopes have flown before."
Then the bird said, "Nevermore."

Startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken,
"Doubtless," said I, "what it utters is its only stock and store,
Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful disaster
Followed fast and followed faster till his songs one burden bore -
Till the dirges of his hope that melancholy burden bore
Of "Never-nevermore."'

But the Raven still beguiling all my sad soul into smiling,
Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird and bust and door;
Then, upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking
Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore -
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and ominous bird of yore
Meant in croaking "Nevermore."

This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing

To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom's core;
This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining
On the cushion's velvet lining that the lamp-light gloated o'er,
But whose velvet violet lining with the lamp-light gloating o'er,
She shall press, ah, nevermore!

Then, methought, the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer
Swung by Seraphim whose foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor.
"Wretch," I cried, "thy God hath lent thee - by these angels he has sent thee
Respite - respite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore!
Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe, and forget this lost Lenore!"
Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil! - prophet still, if bird or devil! -

Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore,
Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted -
On this home by horror haunted - tell me truly, I implore -
Is there - is there balm in Gilead? - tell me - tell me, I implore!"
Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil! - prophet still, if bird or devil!

By that Heaven that bends above us - by that God we both adore -
Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels named Lenore -
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels named Lenore?"
Quoth the raven, "Nevermore."

"Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!" I shrieked upstarting -

"Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's Plutonian shore!
Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!
Leave my loneliness unbroken! - quit the bust above my door!
Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!"
Quoth the raven, "Nevermore."

And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting

On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor
Shall be lifted - nevermore!




Pensaba iniciar mi comentario con la pregunta: ¿Quién no conoce a E. A. Poe? ...mas recordé que hace unos días, en una prestigiosa librería de Caracas, uno de los dependientes no tenía ni idea de quien era ese gringo. ¡Jamás había oído mencionarlo! Muy lamentable. 

Mi primer encuentro con Poe fue a través de un libro titulado Narraciones extraordinarias, recién salido yo de mi adolescencia. Me cautivó de inmediato y quedé pegado a su lectura. Lo atesoré por mucho tiempo y creo que aún permanece en la biblioteca de mi casa materna (debería ir a rescatarlo). Por supuesto, mientras cursaba el bachillerato debió haber algún contacto, pero el programa de estudios de entonces daba preferencia a la literatura europea. Más recientemente, para releer a Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), compré los dos tomos Cuentos (Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 2011), con la ya clásica traducción al castellano de Julio Cortázar.

El tema de la traducción viene al caso porque es difícil verter del inglés a una lengua romance, sin perder en algo lo que quiso decir el autor. Hace unos días, cuando coloqué en esta bitácora el poema Flores y nubes de Juan Antonio Pérez Bonalde, ofrecí transcribir la traducción que hizo este poeta de The Raven (El cuervo), como es una obra bastante larga, la colocaré en dos partes; primero la versión definitiva en inglés (1848), y luego, en la próxima entrega, la traducción perezbonaldiana. Poe escribió este poema en medio de su desolación por el fallecimiento de su esposa Virginia en 1845. Pérez Bonalde, en el mismo espíritu elegíaco escribió Flor, por su hija muerta siendo aún niña.


Para leer la traducción de Juan Antonio Pérez Bonalde ingresar por aquí.

3 comentarios:

  1. Nunca fuí devoto, en mis años adolescentes, de la materia Castellano y Literatura, sin embargo hubo dos lecturas que si me impactaron (quien sabe por que causa oculta en los pliegues del cerebro)
    Una fué la versión traducida de El Cuervo, por Pérez Bonalde, la cual me aprendí los diez o doce primeros versos de memoria y los recitaba en la casa de memoria y en "tempo prestissimo" como si fuera una sola palabra y sin tomar aliento "unafoscamedianochecuandoentristesreflexionesobre....." ¿Que vaina es esa? me preguntaban

    La otra lectura fue la Silva Criolla de Francisco Lazo Martí y cantaba con todos los ritmos posibles (salsa, merengue, mambo, opera italiana etc) aquella simpática estrofa que dice

    Y borracha de luz y miel llanera
    celeste mariposa mensajera
    batiendo va sus cuatro banderines

    Y otra que ya no recuerdo muy bien pero era mas o menos así

    Ya dos veces monstruoso y despiadado
    el incendio su abanico flamante ha desplegado
    (el resto se me olvido)

    PS

    No había visto nunca la versión original The Raven, en inglés

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    Respuestas
    1. Castellano y Literatura tienen poco atractivo porque está mal enseñada; parece que lo hicieran para salir del paso. Me gustaba porque en casa podía ir un poco más allá de lo que forzaba el Ministerio de Educación y en el colegio los curas le daban importancia a la materia.

      Nunca pude aprender un poema de memoria, pero me quedó grabada la imagen de la mariposa borracha de Lazo Martí, así como:

      Es tiempo de que vuelvas:
      es tiempo de que tornes...
      No más de insano amor en los festines,
      con mirto y rosa y pálidos jazmines
      tu pecho varonil, tu pecho exornes.

      Me imaginaba entonces esos mirtos rosas y jazmines achicharrándose de calor y sol en el llano. A ver si un día pongo por aquí la Silva criolla, aunque es un poco larga.

      Puse el original de Poe en inglés, para beneficio de los venezolanos que conocen al Cuervo por la traducción de Pérez Bonalde.

      Gracias por leer.

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  2. I have fun with, lead to I discovered exactly what I was taking a look for.
    You've ended my four day long hunt! God Bless you man.
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